Expert insight

Costs matter, and other axioms on tax-efficient investing

March 14, 2024

Joel M. Dickson, Ph.D.

Vanguard Global Head of Enterprise Advice Methodology

A line chart shows the increase in a hypothetical investment of $100,000 over 30 years at four cost levels. Costs at 2.0%, the highest level considered, result in the lowest final portfolio value, $317,081. Costs at 1.3% result in a final portfolio value of $389,846. Costs at 0.7% result in a final portfolio value of $465,899. Costs at 0.1%, the lowest level considered, result in the highest final portfolio value, $557,383.
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